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CBD oil is an extract of Indian hemp or hemp plant, the same plant that can be turned into hemp when dried. Some people believe that CBD oil can treat pain like marijuana, reduce anxiety and stimulate appetite, but it is not psychoactive. CBD also shows promise in treating certain types of seizures. CBD is short for cannabidiol, and cannabidiol is the two most beneficial chemicals for the human body (one of dozens of chemicals found in cannabis). The other is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which can make people high. CBD oil generally does not contain THC, although there may be traces in products sold.
CBD oil contains CBD mixed with inert carrier oils such as coconut oil or hemp seed oil. Bottled oils (called tinctures) are sold in different concentrations. There are CBD capsules, CBD glue and a CBD spray under the tongue.
The exact mechanism of action of CBD is not clear. Unlike THC, CBD has a low affinity for cannabinoid receptors in the brain. These are molecules that THC binds to in order to induce its psychoactive activity. In contrast, CBD is thought to affect other receptors, including opioid receptors that regulate pain and glycine receptors involved in the regulation of the sensory hormone serotonin. Proponents claim that CBD oil can treat a variety of health issues, including:
- chronic pain
- Addiction and withdrawal
- High blood pressure
- Muscle spasms
- Parkinson’s disease.
Although the use of CBD is becoming increasingly popular, there are still few studies on CBD oil. Therefore, some of these claims are better supported by research than others.
According to a research review published in the journal Neurotherapeutics in 2015, CBD has shown promise in treating anxiety. Researchers say CBD has proven effective anti-anxiety (anxiety relief) effects in animal studies, although the results are counterintuitive. In all but a few studies, lower doses of CBD (10 mg per kilogram, mg/kg or less) may better treat anxiety disorders. Higher doses (100 mg / kg or more) have little effect.
Part of the answer can be explained by the way CBD works in the brain. In many cases, CBD acts as an agonist, meaning that when it binds to the receptor, it triggers the opposite response. Low doses can cause a positive agonist response, while high doses can overwhelm the brain and trigger compensation to counteract the effects of CBD. Of the few human trials evaluating the anti-anxiety effects of CBD, one was published in the Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry in 2019. In this study, 57 men were treated with CBD oil or a placebo prior to the event. Use physiological measures (such as blood pressure, heart rate, etc.) and relatively reliable emotional state tests (called visual analogues of mood scale (VAMS)) to assess anxiety.
The researchers said that men who received 300 mg of CBD showed less anxiety than men who received a placebo. Interestingly, those who received 100 mg or 600 mg of CBD oil did not.
A research review published in Drug Abuse in 2015 pointed out that CBD oil can be beneficial for drug addicts.
Scientists at the University of Montreal analyzed 14 published studies (9 animal and 5 human) and concluded that CBD “shows an effect on the treatment of opioid addiction, cocaine or mental arousal.” The patient’s hope”.
However, the effects of CBD on each addiction are generally very different. For example, in the case of opioid addiction, in the absence of THC, CBD has little effect in minimizing withdrawal symptoms. In contrast, CBD alone appears to be effective in reducing drug-seeking behavior in users of cocaine, methamphetamine, and other psychostimulants. It was also suggested that the Convention on Biological Diversity could help to treat cannabis and nicotine addiction. Need more research.
Medical marijuana is often prescribed for people with persistent (treatment-resistant) pain (including those with advanced cancer). There is evidence that the Convention on Biological Diversity can help achieve this benefit.
According to a 2012 study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, rats treated with oral doses and spinal cord injections of CBD3 had less inflammation and neuropathic pain when injected with inflammatory chemicals in the hind legs.
Scientists believe that CBD may relieve nerve pain by binding to glycine receptors in the brain, which regulate the speed at which nerve signals are transmitted between nerve cells.
There are no human studies evaluating the use of CBD in the treatment of chronic pain. Those that do exist almost always contain THC, making it difficult to isolate the unique effects of CBD.
A 2017 study by JCI Insight found that CBD oil can reduce the risk of heart disease by reducing high blood pressure (hypertension) in some people.
In this study, 9 healthy men took 600 mg of CBD or the same dose of placebo. According to the researchers, people receiving CBD treatment have lower blood pressure before and after stress stimulation (including exercise or extreme colds).
In addition, the amount of motivation (the amount of blood remaining in the heart after the heart beats) is also significantly reduced, which means that the heart pumps blood more efficiently.
The results suggest that CBD oil may be an appropriate complementary therapy for people whose hypertension is complicated by stress and anxiety. However, there is no evidence that CBD oil can treat hypertension per se or prevent it in people at risk. While stress is known to complicate hypertension, it cannot be the cause.
In June 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex, an oral solution of CBD for the treatment of certain rare forms of epilepsy-Dravet and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in children under 2 years of age. Both of these extremely rare genetic diseases can cause catastrophic lifelong seizures that begin in the first year of life.
Besides these two diseases, the effectiveness of CBD in the treatment of epilepsy is uncertain. Even with Epidiolex, it is not known whether the anti-epileptic effect can be attributed to CBD or to other factors.
There is evidence that CBD interacts with epilepsy medications (such as Onfi (clozan)) to “raise” blood levels. This not only makes the drug more effective, but also extends its half-life. Need more research.
Possible side effects
Clinical studies have shown that CBD oil can cause side effects. The severity and type may vary from person to person.
Common symptoms include:
- Changes in appetite
- Mood swings
- Dry mouth
CBD oil can also increase liver enzymes (a marker of liver inflammation). Patients with liver disease should use CBD oil with caution, preferably under the supervision of a physician who can regularly check liver enzyme levels in the blood.
CBD oil should be avoided during pregnancy and breastfeeding. A 2018 study by the American Academy of Pediatrics warned women to avoid marijuana during pregnancy because of the potential risk to a developing baby. Although the role of CBD is not clear, it is well known that CBD crosses the placental barrier.
If you are considering using CBD oil to treat health issues, be sure to talk to your doctor to make sure it is the right choice for you.